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Alum Spotlight – Sterling Gardner: “A feather in the Richmond cap!”

November 6, 2017

The timeline and early locations of what would become Virginia Union University are tricky, especially give the fact that Union started as four different institutions. But before there was a Virginia Union University there was Richmond Theological Seminary residing in the old United States Hotel, and before that there was a Colver Institute renting the land that was once Lumpkin’s Jail, and even before that for two years the campus-less Richmond Theological School for Freedmen sought to educate those who wished to become preachers.

Sometime in these early years, right after the Civil War, Sterling Gardner became a student of Colver Institute. As is unfortunately the case for many of these men and women, we know little of his early life besides the fact that he had been a slave in the household of Judge William Gibson of Augusta, Georgia.

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Judge William Gibson

How he came to be in the household is unclear but it very likely he was born a slave since the very name “Sterling Gardner” was a family name from Gibson’s mother’s family; the first Sterling Gardner being a Revolutionary War soldier. We do know from his own account that he was baptized at the Springfield Baptist Church in Augusta, one of the oldest Black congregations in the United States.

We also don’t know what Gardner might have been doing during the Civil War, though he would have only been a young boy at the time. Gibson, however, became a Colonel in the Confederate Army.

Gardner enters our historical record at Virginia Union University’s Archive and Special Collections as a 14 or 15 year old boy writing letters to Richmond Theological Seminary President Charles Corey. Corey recalls him as being on the “earliest and most successful students” and he seems to have established a special bond with his professor/president. Certainly Corey thought he was providing Gardner with the chance for future advancements by helping him get financial help to attend Madison (now Colgate University) in Hamilton, New York.

But Gardner comes to us most clearly through those letters. Already as a young boy he had made the move from Augusta, GA to study at Richmond and his homesickness shines through. One remains from Gardner’s time in Richmond, writing to Corey who had taken a trip to New England. He tells Corey of the summer jobs he and his fellow pupils have taken. He has tried to find students to tutor while some of his friends are working in a tobacco factory or selling books.

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Madison (Now Colgate) University

His letters written from New York to Richmond the following year show a studious sixteen year old trying to make his way in the world. He did not have a very high opinion of his fellow classmates, demeaning them frivolous. In May of 1870 he wrote to Corey,

Things are very loose. There is no rule to govern the students. they go out or come in when they please. They stamp and hollorr [holler] in the hall at night, and also out in the yard. They just have their own fun…If I do not be very careful I will have the worst kinds of habits. Is it this way in all Colleges?

Not only the students, but the buildings of the institution left something to be desired in Gardner’s mind,

The hallways, in which the students sweep the trash out of their rooms, are swept out only once a week.
Old papers, hats, boots or shoes, collars, and other things are thrown from the windows, and remain around the building.

He also echos the worries of college students through the ages, wondering if he has enough money to make it through the semester. A statement that prompts Corey to send him a draft for ten dollars.

Despite this, Gardner was succeeding scholastically and winning numerous awards. The corresponding secretary of the American Baptist Home Mission Society wrote Corey to say “The case of Gardner is a feather in the Richmond cap!”. It must have been a lot of pressure for one student to have, one of the first to graduate this new school and prove to more established institutions that his education was sufficient. And it was not without push back, especially as he started to win accolades for his intelligence.

In a letter from March 1871, Gardner tells Corey he suspects that an award, rightfully his, was discontinued, solely because it was he, a black former slave, who had won it.

I have thought that the class wished to abolish the honors because I was in it and I have told some, in a way to avoid an appearance of pride, that I thought thus, but they deny that was the thing which moved them and they think that no one was moved by such a motive. There is no outward appearance of such a thing just now, but I am afraid that it is in some. Some of the other classes speak of doing the same thing, but my class was the first. The reason why they do it is, to promote the good feeling and friendship of the classmates, so that when we graduate we will not despise one another on account of honors, as it usually is…
I have not had an opportunity of ascertaining my standing from the professor’s since I rec’d your letter, but some of the class members say that I stood a chance for the valedict[orian]. I stand among the best scholars in everything, except speaking.

Gardner did graduate with “several prizes…[and] high honors” and paved the way for other early students, Joseph Edom Jones and David Nathaniel Vassar to attend Madison as well.

Gardner returned to Richmond and from 1872-1876 taught at what was by then the Richmond Theological Seminary. But back in his home church, Springfield Baptist

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William J. White

Church in Augusta, GA, his friend, William J. White, had helped co-found the Augusta Institute, a fore bearer of Morehouse College in 1867 and both he and school president Joseph T. Robert urged Gardner to come back home and teach there.

Both schools were under the auspices of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, and the board agreed to let Gardner transfer, with Jones replacing Gardner in Richmond, but they were not happy with the salary amount that Corey and Robert had proposed for their new professors. Corresponding secretary, S. S. Cutting wrote,

The Committee were unanimous in the opinion that the salary paid to Gardner was too large as also that asked for Jones. We wish to do what is just and right in the matter, and therefore ask you to reconsider the amount of salary you wish Jones to have and see if the sum cannot be considerably reduced. There are scores of white men who would be glad to teach for a much less sum, and who have had many years of experience. Why should [Illegible], Gardner, & Jones be paid a larger salary than our other white assistants. If it is because they are educated colored men, then certainly we are making unwise discrimination between the white and the blacks.

It is unclear whether Gardner and Jones got the salary amount requested. Unfortunately for Gardner it wasn’t to be a concern for long. In December of 1877, at only 23 years old, Gardner died of “consumption” and “heart disease”. The letters written to Corey, informing him of Gardner’s death says “he was so highly esteemed & loved in the Institute” and makes not that at his funeral “Judge Gibson, his former owner was also there & seemed much affected”. Gardner was exalted by President Roberts as “a most excellent Christian Scholar of great promise.” He was laid to rest in Cedar Grove Cemetery in Augusta. He was survived by his mother and at least one brother.

Judge Gibson may have been widely known and respected in his time, but Gardner soon became so as well, and at a much faster pace for much more admirable reasons. In just 23 short years of life, Gardner helped set up two HBCUs that still stand today – Virginia Union University and Morehouse College.

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Ghosts of Readers Past

October 17, 2017

All libraries are full of ghosts. Especially those with special collections and archives. People have left their marks everywhere. Archives are really nothing more than a collection of ghosts, curated for your enjoyment and research, pieces of their souls they’ve left behind to be stored in record center carton prisons.

But the ghosts in special collections are different, they are more elusive. Who were these ghosts of readers past? Why did they read this book? Did they like this book? Was it bought by them or for them? Did it help them in any way? Such thoughts go through my mind when I open the worn covers and see the notes, the names, the doodles. So on this spooky October day I’d like to share some of the Virginia Union University Special Collection’s Ghosts of Reader’s Past.

According to the archives at King’s College Cambridge, “The earliest known examples of printed bookplates are German, and date from the 15th century.” As early as the 19th century they became a collector’s item because of their many beautiful designs and motifs. However they are more then just decorative, they are of course utilitarian.

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Some were simple, just recording the owner’s name – other’s had room for some more information. W. E. C. Rich, a Boston school administer, had his bookplates made with room for him to add the price he paid and when he bought it.

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Still others made sure to warn anyone borrowing their books that they expected to get them back in one piece. The bookplate of Rev. William A. Lilley below admonishes borrowers to take care of the book as if it were an extension of Lilley himself.

 

 

Z. F. Griffin’s (short for Zebina Flavious) bookplate however seems to imply that he 20160825_081518.jpgwouldn’t dare let anyone borrow his books which makes one wonder how it left his side and became part of our collections. A somber looking missionary in his photographs, he hardly looks like one to let you joyfully cart off his books.

 

My favorite, however, are the pictorial ones. I’d like to imagine that the readers chose images that they could relate to and between the pictures and the books that they chose to claim as their own we might be able to determine a little more about these people.

For instance, it seems fitting that Deborah Dunn Chapman (lower left) has a simple picture of a horse on the coast. Her father was a farmer and timber seller and she lived in Maine surrounded by similar scenery. Her father’s business card has a similar simple beauty.scan0158

Whereas the bookplate of Mabel Wood Cheek (lower right) is very ornate and seems to make a lot of sense when you see where she lived.

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Cheekwood, the home of Mabel Wood Cheek in Nashville, TN

Virginia Union has had many different bookplates for its library books over the years as well. Below are just a few.

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A Puzzle in Parian.

September 21, 2017

Wednesday, October 4th is #AskAnArchivist Day on Twitter. Each year archivists use this hashtag to answer questions about their collections or about the work that an archivist does.  Last year we posed a question of our own…

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This lovely gentlemen has been part of the library for as long as anyone can remember. Once he was probably part of a collection of busts that were housed in early reincarnations of the library. This early picture of the Virginia Union University library circa 1908.

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It was quite a fashionable thing to do at the time. To fill your place of learning with the busts of high-learned men. The Library of Virginia (then situated in Capitol Square) had a similar set-up at the time.

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Courtesy of the Library of Virginia

Only a few books from the early days of Virginia Union University still exist and it would seem that only one of the many busts remain as well.

The one that remains currently sits in the Archives stacks, unseen by many but if one is working back there he stares at you for hours at end. Archival work can sometimes be a lonely business, sitting in the back, working through papers in generally what is a windowless and cold room (so light and humidity don’t harm the papers) so I became very attached to our busty friends in the back room. And yet sad that I did not know this one’s name. Luckily there were clues to lead the way, a maker’s mark on the piece informed us that the bust was made by a British company, Copeland, around the mid to late 1800s. Copeland made many busts and small statues during that time period. Allegorical figures, members of royalty, and even some popular celebrities such as the singer Jenny Lind (see below). Have a post of your favorite movie star in your room now? Maybe then you would have had a bust of your favorite opera singer.

 

 

These busts were called “Parian busts” after the material they were made out of. Parian ware is a type of porcelain that looks like marble, allowing middle class people to decorate their houses and institutions with imitation pieces that looked reminiscent of expensive marble statuary. Copeland mass produced popular busts and figurines making them both accessible and popular.

But despite finding this information on the internet and looking through pages of pages pictures of Copeland Parian Busts, I could not find our staring friend. His draped clothing seemed to suggest a Roman or Grecian figure but we soon learned that this was part of the look of these busts. Many of the “modern day figures”, meaning those of the late 1800s were styled in a manner that evoked the great Greek and Roman philosophers. Might it have been made specifically to honor a specific patron of the university? If that was the case I lost all hope of figuring it out after it failed to look like any of the pictures of the early Board of Trustee members.

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But there is this wonderful thing called ILL. What is ILL? ILL stands for Inter-Library Loan. Just as your library has an agreement with you that allows you to borrow items, libraries have agreements with other libraries. If there is a book you want and we don’t have it at Virginia Union University, let a librarian know because another library might be able to let us borrow it.

We were able to use ILL to borrow a book from Washington and Lee University, a catalog of Copeland statuary and busts. And there finally, staring back up at me (always staring), was his face…

Whose face? Who did the early administration of Virginia Union University believe was important enough to display a bust of?

Daniel Webster.

If you are a little rusty on your early American History, Webster was a member of both the House and Senate, held numerous government positions, and (unsuccessfully) ran for president three times. Although in the beginning of his political career Webster spoke out about slavery. However, after about 30 years into this political career, in an attempt

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A copy of Webster’s speeches from VUU’s Special Collections

to forestall the Civil War, Webster signed on to the omnibus bill which came to be known as “The Compromise of 1850” which included such legislation as the tougher enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act. His constituents in Massachusetts were appalled and forced him to resign, though later he served a second term as Secretary of State.

So how might the students of Virginia Union University felt about seeing his face every day?

While we will never know for sure, we definitely know they were cognizant of who he was. Although students tended to focus their essays on more prominent abolitionists such as Abraham Lincoln, Charles Sumner and Frederick Douglass or on theological issues, Webster pops up every now and then.

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One of several monuments to Webster

In his essay “Representative Men”, Richmond Institute (a forerunner to VUU) student, Roger M. Harrison listed Webster, along with Lincoln, Washington, and Garfield as men representative of the American character. Another student, Alfred Chisholm, in his essay “The Men We Need”, cites Webster as one of the great orators whose produced “great works on language”.

It wasn’t all glowing praise though, John W. Jackson mentions Webster in his essay on Charles Sumner only to point out that Sumner, being far greater than Webster, will have no need of a huge monument to make sure people will remember him such as Webster has.

I, for one, am glad to have a name for my working buddy. But what do you think? Do you think its a good likeness?

 

 

They got the creepy staring, that’s for sure.

If you want to see what questions we tackle this year, join us on Twitter at @VUULibrary on October 4th or follow the hashtag #AskAnArchivist to see what cool stuff Archivists are working on around the world.

Create Art; Win Prizes!

September 13, 2017

Do you like digital art? History? Archives? Ghosts? Booze? Virginia Union University Panther Pride?

How about winning prizes?

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REMIX | Spirits in the Archives is a contest to inspire literal and figurative out-of-the-box ideas for cultural heritage collections. Archives aren’t just about serious research, they can be about serious (or not so serious) art! Redaction poetry, GIFs, collages, coloring pages, memes, and other digital interventions are all ways to remix.

The Virginia Caucus of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference (MARAC) in celebration of American Archives Month is sponsoring this contest and institutions around Virginia (including VUU) have supplied images from their collections for re-use to make new and exiting works of art focused on the theme of “Spirits” for October!

The artwork will be judged by a panel (including our own Fine Arts Professor Sukenya Best. Winners will be rewarded with Amazon gift cards as well as other goodies.

Visit the Flickr album to see the images available to used in your re-mix art. Guidelines and submissions can be accessed via the Remix | Spirit in the Archives Tumblr. You have until October 23rd to enter. Winners will be announced on November 2nd.

Don’t forget to share your creations with us on Twitter as well at @VUULibrary. Flyers are available at the L. Douglas Wilder Library Periodicals Desk.

Almost 20 Years of VUU.edu!

May 9, 2017

You might have noticed that our website got a makeover this year! Thanks to the WayBack Machine we can see the evolution of the VUU website as far back as 1998 (although sometimes it didn’t capture the photos).

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We were even using gifs some 15 years ago or so…snazzy.

An Exponential Education: The Early Students of Hartshorn Memorial College

March 27, 2017
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“Students 1892”

From 1883 until its 1932 merger with Virginia Union University, Hartshorn Memorial College served as Richmond’s premier (and only) school (both high school and college Booze3level) for African American women. As the first place of higher education specifically for African American women, its students combated the prejudice against educating Black Americans and against educating women. These brave Black women worked hard for their place in the world.

The alumni of Hartshorn include such notables as the civic organizer, Bessye B. Bearden, author/librarian Constance Hill Marteena, musician Revella Eudosia Hughes, and missionary/educator Eva Roberta Coles Boone. However, the vast majority of the graduates have gone unnoticed despite the fact that they made up the vanguard of African American education in the United States as some of the first Black college educated teachers.

These women not only pursued their own education in a difficult era, but then dedicated their lives to providing an education to others. Many of the early photographs that remain from Hartshorn are unlabeled, so it is very seldom that we can match a name to the faces

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Booze’s Essay “Uses of Beauty”

of these educational pioneers but every so often a story or two emerges.

One of those stories is that of Mary Moore Booze Reaves, a typical student of the early years of Hartshorn. One of the few remaining records that remain from Hartshorn is a notebook of English essays from 1888. The beautifully handwritten essays written by eleven students cover a wide range of topics from “The Means by Which the Colored People Will Win Their Place” to  “Hygiene and Health” and “Honesty in the Teacher and in the Pupil”. (The author of the latter does not seem to agree with her own teacher’s methods).

In the midst of these essays is one entitled “The Uses of Beauty” by Mary M. Booze. The essay opines how there are many types of beauty. Starting with physical beauty but also “beauty in actions, motives and religion” and their effect on our lives and understanding of God. Booze’s examination record shows a firm grasp of Algebra, Latin, and Geometry. Competent in Logic, Caesar and Cicero, and Physics but perhaps not so keen on

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Booze’s Examination Record

Trigonometry.

Regardless of Trig, Booze was one of three women who were awarded the first degrees from Hartshorn in 1892, receiving a Bachelor’s of Science. Classes had been graduating since 1885, but the school was not approved to award diplomas until 1892.

Booze, like many of her classmates before and after, turned to teaching. It was one of the few careers available to Black women at the time but

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Raleigh Herald, April 11, 1912

that does not mean it was of any less importance. Boone passed the West Virginia teaching examination and in 1907 became the first teacher of the first school for Black children in Beckley, West Virginia. As well as Statton High School, the first Black high school in the area, and the West Virginia Colored Institute  (now West Virginia State University). For many years, an elementary school in Beckley bore her name. She was called a “pillar of education”. In 1935, a year before her death, a newspaper article named her and her school as one of “many advantages [the county] offers to negro citizens”.

She never stopped learning herself. She was part of the West Virginia Teacher’s Association and attended conferences and classes where she listened but also presented on topics such as “Use of Stories in Teaching”.

It is almost incomprehensible to try to wrap one’s head around how many students Mary Booze exponentially effected. By setting up these schools she became the direct teacher of hundreds of students, who then in turn went off and taught others and so forth until the present day and into the future. S0 many of these women are lost to history and it’s in honor of them all that we introduce you to Mary Booze.

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“Hartshorn Memorial College Graduates and teachers 1891-1892”


Sources:

A Founding Family Part 4: The Kinckles Jrs.

February 24, 2017

Generally in the course of history, it is the women who have faded into the past more than the men. Their stories are generally less covered, their names appear less in documents, they moved less in public spaces. Therefore, it is interesting that in the case of the three Kinckle siblings that it is the only son, John Henry Kinckle Jr., who is harder to trace through the historical record. We have no known picture of him at this time. This may be simply be because of fact that he spent most of his life away from Virginia and his alma mater, but our resources on his sisters Alice Walker and Rosa Daniel far out-weigh our information on him.

John Henry Kinckle Jr. was the youngest of the three Kinckle children; born in 1859, just a year after his sister Rosa. Although we don’t know for sure, he probably attended the Lynchburg public schools like his sisters did.

catalogHe attended VUU (still called Richmond Theological Institute at the time) where both his brothers-in-law were teaching and he worked beside them as a student teacher. The catalog page on the left lists Rev J. Endom Jones, Rev David N. Vassar, and Mr. J. H. Kinckle Jr. Three brothers-in-law all dedicated to higher education. Kinckle Jr. graduated in 1883. He married Mary Augusta Stokes in 1885.

He eventually followed in his sister’s footsteps and attended Howard, graduating from Howard Law in 1886 and passing the bar exam in Virginia the same year. In 1887, John Henry Kinckle Jr. and a fellow Howard graduate Rollins H. Merchant became for the first Black law firm in Lynchburg, Merchant & Kinckle.1 He also may have spent some time helping his father in his porter business since an 1887 Lynchburg Directory advertises the “John Kinckle and Son” baggage business.2baggage

John and Mary had a son, John Vassar Kinckle (seemingly named after his uncle David N. Vassar) on October 19, 1899. The Kinckles did not stay long in Lynchburg, instead moving to Georgia where John had to once again pass the bar in order to practice. Kinckle petitioned the bar in 1891 for the right to take the bar exam. Georgia had not allowed any Black lawyer to take the bar exam previously and many white judges refused to administer the examination to Kinckle. Finally,Judge Robert Falligant examined him and being “well satisfied…readily admitted him”.3 Kinckle became the first Black lawyer to practice on the Eastern Judicial Court.4

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The Philadelphia Inquirer, April 18, 1891

Unfortunately, shortly thereafter in 1902, Mary Kinckle died. Kinckle very quickly re-married to Janice Bryan (known as Jennie). John and Jennie had two more children, Gwendolyn Mae and Edmund Burke in 1906 and 1907.

Kinckle’s practice in Savannah grew slowly. “[A]ccording to one source, ‘Savannah blacks who had legal problems usually carried them to white lawyers.’ Other blacks simply did not have the money to afford a lawyer.”5  But Kinckle joined with the lawyer Abraham L. Tucker to form a firm.6 By 1912, Kinckle had become a politically active citizen of Georgia and represented the National Progressive Party, a third party lead by former President Teddy Roosevelt, as a delegate to the state convention.7

Kinckle was well regarded as a lawyer and argued at least one case in front of the Georgia Supreme Court.8 At his death in 1922, Kinckle had been a lawyer in Savannah for 35 years.9 Since he was in his forties when his two younger children were born, he did not live to see them married but all three did marry.

Both sons, John Vassar and Edmund Burke became postal workers.10 Gwendolyn, who went by Mae, graduated from college, was very active in the Pittsburgh chapter of the YWCA in the 1930s, and married Howard Dammonds of Pittsburgh.

Hopefully, further research will result in more information regarding Kinckle Jr.’s life.

If you liked this post, please check out the other in this month’s series which cover the families of John Henry Kinckle Jr.’s parents and sisters. Leave us any comments here, on twitter at @VUULibrary or via email at archives@vuu.edu.


Footnotes

1. Delaney, Ted, and Phillip Wayne Rhodes. Free Blacks of Lynchburg, Virginia, 1805-1865. Lynchburg: Old City Cemetery, 2001.
2. Lynchburg Virginia City Directory. Lynchburg, 1887, VA.
3. Smith, John C. Emancipation: the making of the black lawyer, 1844-1944. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.
4.Smith, Gordon. “A Short History of the Savannah Bar and the Savannah Bar Association.” Savannah Bar Association. 1993. Accessed February 24, 2017.
5. Smith, John C. Emancipation: the making of the black lawyer, 1844-1944. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.
6. Sumler-Edmond, Janice. The secret trust of Aspasia Cruvellier Mirault the life and trials of a free woman of color in antebellum Georgia. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2008.
7.Associated Press. “Eleven Negroes; one white for Roosevelt in Savannah.” The Charolette News, July 22, 1912.
8. Reports of Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the State of Georgia. Atlanta, GA: State Library, 1921.
9. “Lawyer Kinckle Dies in His Savannah Home.” The New York Age, March 25, 1922.
10. “January 7, 2001.” Times Herald-Record. January 07, 2001. Accessed February 24, 2017.

Ancestry.com. U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2005.
Original data: United States, Selective Service System. World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. M1509, 4,582 rolls. Imaged from Family History Library microfilm.